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Mykola Gordovskyy. Marcel Goossens. Proton versus electron heating in solar flares. Advances in Space Research 35 — www. Gordovskyy , V. Zharkova a, Yu. Voitenko b, M. The beam electrons are found to provide a fast within a few tenth of a second heating of the atmosphere that is well spread in depth from the corona to the lower chromosphere.
The protons are shown to precipitate to the lower atmosphere much slower up to few seconds for beam and up to 10—20 s for slow jets. The accepted thick et al. Gordovskyy et al. This approach can be also used for the calcula- of 1 min cadence dopplergrams. Also it was found that tions of the atmosphere heating by beam electrons. Hence, it is logical to tle energy to account for observed radiative signatures assume that there are some alternative sources delivering see e. However, proton beams are also shown to be sub- short under 1 min timescale that can be proton or neu- ject to wave—particle interaction with the ambient plas- tralised beams.
KAWs, in carried by protons and electrons and their heating ef- turn, can cause plasma heating owing to Cherenkov res- fects, one needs to revise the scenarios, in which the en- onant scattering on ambient plasma electrons Voitenko ergy is delivered to the lower atmosphere. This can be a and Goossens, Results are discussed in Litvinenko et al. Both types of particle distributions pre- jets Priest, ; Strachan and Priest, ; Voitenko, sented in Section 3.
Other Titles by Valentina Zharkova
The recent results Section 3. The conclusions are drawn in Section 4. The particle acceleration model In order to simplify the problem, we assume that both types of particles, beams and neutral jets, are injected 2. Since accelerated protons and a reconnection occurring in the 2D RCS based on a Pet- electrons will either belong to beams or to neutral jets schek-type model see e.
After ejection from the RCS particles are assumed to precipitate downward to the footpoints FP in the photosphere while losing their energy in particle—parti- cle or wave—particle interaction with the ambient plasma.
According to these results, the accelerated pro- tons and electrons are ejected from the RCS separately into the opposite loop-legs. The indices of energy spectra were found to be 1. A Hence, in the collisionless reconnection model of a hot and a depict the width and thickness of the outer region see current sheet, the separatrix jets are the plasma and description in the text , while L and l depict the width and thickness of the inner region. Momentums carried by the particles gions.
Electron and Proton Kinetics and Dynamics in Flaring Atmospheres
Hence, the solution of this set provides equation see e. The same kinetic simulations are applied to calculate 2.
This results in the relaxation of KAWs hereafter. Results and discussion protons up to erg. However, this mated from a solution of the set of Eqs. These Section 3. Therefore, both kinds of protons can bring a substan- tial momentum to the lower atmosphere unlike the elec- 3. The proton distribution functions bution function f x, E : 3.
The relaxation length lrx depends on the ambient plasma parameters and is about — cm for the plasma conditions in the corona. Heating by electrons It can be seen that the heat- using the distribution functions above see Section ing rate is non-zero only at the height below 5 Mm, 3. The maxi- 3. At acceler- ation in an RCS the fast protons gain high energies 3.
Electron and proton kinetics and dynamics in flaring atmospheres - CERN Document Server
Heating by protons resulting in velocities much higher than the local Alfven 3. In the speed Zharkova and Gordovskyy, a. Therefore, sphere. In comparison with the electron heating see Sec- oz 2 oz tion 3. The characteristic timescales of particle precipitation The characteristic timescales of beam propagation throughout a whole atmosphere length of cm are summarized in Table 2. Assuming that a loop length is about cm, the characteristic precipitation time for beam electrons is about 0. At the Fig. Since protons caused by the electron beam precipitation is about are likely to induce Alfven waves then the ambient plas- 0.
However, this emission is to be produced by acceleration. In order to observe it, tion will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. During their precipitation electrons are assumed to HXR and MW emission produced by the ambient lose their energy owing to Coulomb collisions and Oh- plasma thermal electrons electrostatically dragged mic heating of the ambient plasma. Protons are sup- by protons. Basically, there are the three types of chromosphere level.
This heating is nearly uniform from the Table 1. This heating occurs as the emission. At the same time, the precipitation of high-en- relaxation of the initially monoenergetic protons ergy proton beams can provide much higher energy to a step-like energy distributions because of these deposited either in the region just below a reconnecting velocities have a positive slope and have magni- current sheet or in the dense chromosphere.
This energy tudes higher than the local Alfven ones. Japan 47, — ,