New Approaches to Resistance in Brazil and Mexico

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The greatest success of the collection is its dedication to problematizing partial accounts and redressing various narratives omitted from previous scholarship. The end result is a thought provoking analysis of the subaltern that offers careful consideration to identity e.

Brazil, Argentina & Mexico drag on Latin America's economic outlook

However, this invaluable contribution to expanding the ways we think about resistance and the subaltern is also a point from which the collection falls flat. Ironically, the book vaunts rethinking notions of subalternity, but in doing so relies on problematic non-nuanced ways of discursively engaging with the social.

Subsequently the problematic ways of knowing the world that the book claims to be dedicated to overcoming are reproduced. Such crude framings of the world eschew the importance of thinking about the true complexities of these too often oversimplified categories, not only reinstilling binary tropes into academic discussions, but also discounting the complexity of the social world. Perhaps this deference to Manichean framings is a result of the limited critical tools of analysis employed by the authors of the collection. Such transformative frameworks as affect theory, emotional theory, queer theory, post- humanism, and new materialism to name just a few , have opened up nuanced ways to write, read, and think about power, oppression, and identity.

However this call, akin to calls made by other authors throughout the text, risks reducing attempts to thinking about new approaches to resistance along a same, albeit broader, register. Surely more than a simple widening of what is considered resistance, and the context in which to recognize resistance, is necessary to rethink these topics. The book is well-documented and impressively researched; however, the text ultimately fails to deliver an approach to resistance that genuinely feels new. Related Papers.

Reconceptualizing Subaltern Politics in Contemporary India. By srila roy and Alf Nilsen. At the same time, previously hidden, marginalized, and devalued forms of indigenous and native wisdom have reemerged, precisely to contest the destructive tendencies of Western epistemology. This seminar will therefore focus on the theories and methods of global Indigeneities to examine from their standpoint the dependence of human cognition on the natural environment.

This research seminar takes up the topic of political violence in 20th century Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Examples include the systematic killing of Haitians by the Dominican military in the late s; the "dirty wars" of the southern cone in the s; and the civil wars that overtook Central America and Peru in the s. Using the explanatory framework provided by the concept of "dirty war," we will explore how scholars have used it to understand state-sponsored political violence through key case studies. With this foundation, students will develop their own research projects examining political violence in the region.

Science, Technology, and Society in Latin America. What roles have science and technology played in shaping modern Latin American nations, communities, and environments? This course explores the history of Latin American since independence s-present through various lenses, including the natural sciences, infrastructure and engineering, and health and medicine. The goal is to use science and technology as a way of exploring state-formation, territoriality, social control and resistance, and environmental relations.

Instructors: Ryan C. Cross-listed courses by catalogue number Fall Interdisciplinary Design Studio. The course focuses on the social forces that shape design thinking. Its objective is to introduce architectural and urban design issues to build design and critical thinking skills from a multidisciplinary perspective. The studio is team-taught from faculty across disciplines to expose students to the multiple forces within which design operates.

Instructors: Mario Isaac Gandelsonas. Languages of the Americas.

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This course explores the vast linguistic diversity of the Americas: native languages, pidgins, creoles, mixed languages, and other languages in North, Central, and South America, including the Caribbean. We will examine historical and current issues of multilingualism to understand the relationship between language, identity, and social mobility. We will discuss how languages played a central role in colonization and nation-building processes, and how language policies contribute to linguistic loss and revitalization.

This course has no prerequisites and is intended for students interested in learning more about languages in the Americas. Identity in the Hispanic World. How are ideas of belonging to the body politic defined in Spain, Latin America, and in Spanish-speaking communities in the United States? Who constructs these terms and why? Why do we need these identity markers in the first place? Our course will engage these questions by surveying and analyzing literary, historical, and visual productions from the time of the foundation of the Spanish empire to the present time in the Spanish speaking world.

Instructors: Christina H. Colonial Latin America to What is colonization? How does it work? What kind of societies does it create?

JOHN GLEDHILL AND PATIENCE A. SCHELL, (EDS.): New Approaches to Resistance in Brazil and Mexico

Employed labor income accounted for 57 percent of gross income growth, due mostly to expansion of low-skill retail and other services. The demand boom was not matched by supply-side reforms to raise productivity, however. Moreover, high consumer prices and expensive credit continued to tax the purchasing power even of those with rising incomes. The benefits faded away through inflation and macroeconomic instability once the commodity boom ended.

The demand boom was thus unsustainable because it was not supported by supply-side initiatives or a macro environment conducive to private investment. Mexico, by contrast, focused on supply reforms and access to external markets, boosting productivity among the large modern segments of many industries by as much as 5. Yet domestic demand has lagged. Productivity in the long tail of small industries did not improve and, unlike in Brazil, the gains did not feed through into broad-based wage growth; rather, they accrued mainly to the profit share of income.

For example, while manufacturing productivity increased by an average of 1. Given that a higher share of wage income is spent rather than saved , this limited the multiplier potential of the productivity gains to translate into a more sustained source of domestic demand expansion. Domestic market growth was thus limited, crimping incentives for investment. The middle lost out amid these changes. The Mexican auto sector provides one striking example of the divergence between productivity growth and wages.

Production has grown at an annual average rate of 7 percent since , and after doubling in a decade, labor productivity now ranks with that of the top producers in the world. Labor income gains have come from added workers at a wage level that is 1. By comparison, South Korea at the same point in its auto industry development saw a 58 percent increase in sector wages over the corresponding ten years of productivity growth. In Colombia, the patterns of growth since the turn of the century have been more inclusive.

Wage growth averaged more than 2 percent annually, exceeding productivity growth and reflecting productivity gains across sectors. Some six million workers joined the workforce between and , with disproportionate gains for women.

However, this rapid expansion slowed wage growth compared with some peers. For example, Thailand grew at about the same rate during this period but nonetheless achieved wage growth of 3. If Latin American economies were able to fill in and strengthen the missing middles, thereby establishing a virtuous cycle of inclusive growth, the potential reward would be substantial. Using a macroeconomic simulation that assumes conservative growth in productivity is matched by increased labor shares and consumption in line with more inclusive countries, we find that achieving such a growth cycle could lift GDP in the region in by 50 percent above a baseline scenario that factors in current trends, including reduced labor force expansion.

Obtaining that prize will be challenging.

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Governments and business leaders will need to embrace a growth-focused policy agenda that addresses the missing links of past reforms. Even in a time of social and political tensions, Latin America has a new opportunity to revitalize inclusive growth—and new tools to achieve it: digital technologies that can raise productivity growth and develop the missing middles, if embraced and adopted at scale. Digital can facilitate more efficient markets from land and jobs to local services. At the same time, these technologies present potential risks for inclusive growth in terms of job displacement and further concentration of profits.

Three priorities will be needed to lay the foundations for a pro-growth, inclusive agenda for the region and make it better able to embrace digital disruption. First is the need to create a competitive business environment in which digital can thrive, innovation is rewarded, and opportunities are created for all, especially squeezed firms in the middle. That will mean using digital tools where available to cut red tape, improve access to finance, and reduce barriers to entry and growth that reduce dynamism and performance pressure.

Second, regulation will need to be redesigned to create labor and consumer markets that spread productivity gains to the vulnerable and middle classes. If Latin America is to boost prosperity for all, productivity gains must flow to rising incomes for workers as they increase in skill level and to firms well placed to reinvest in their people, technology, and communities.

Third, government itself can leverage digital platforms to raise public-sector efficiency and improve the delivery and cost of public services. Institutions will need to adapt and shift focus from protecting and regulating the status quo to encouraging new investment and experimenting with new delivery solutions.

Such changes will make Latin America better able to harness digital technologies, which could serve as a powerful source of productivity and growth. Many countries in Latin America have already started on this path; if that energy can be maintained and built out, the region may be ripe for a Digital Spring.

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While the changes may be led by digital companies and technologies, they will extend to non-digital parts of the economy, too. Disruption from digital and in the broader economy offers an opportunity for a new model of inclusive growth in which governments facilitate new sources of productivity for firms and workers and design policies to share benefits with all citizens.

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Senior partner Andres Cadena and partner Jaana Remes describe the new opportunity for inclusive growth. Section 1 Latin America faces a dual challenge of slow GDP growth and unequal distribution of the gains of that growth. We strive to provide individuals with disabilities equal access to our website.